Simultaneous Processing - Using multiple sensory areas all at the same time.
Linkages - Linking prior learning to new material. This may include review, rhythm, rehearsal of mastered facts etc.
Rhythm - Using rhythm and or rhythmic speech to enhance memory by engaging the body or the tactile/kinesthenic
Coding - Identifying something and labeling as to form or function to apply toward a useful purpose.
Explicit Instruction - explicit, non-ambiguous concept instruction -can include discovery element, not rote practice
Restricted Number Facts - New material is introduced with previously mastered facts to avoid computational complexity. Students use mastered facts to internalize the concept, then practice with targeted facts to develop fluency through use.
Structured, Sequential, Cumulative and Thorough - These are basic literacy tenants that are part of any Orton-Gillingham/ multisensory approach to literacy and that includes literacy in mathematics.
Multisensory Instruction - Use as many sensory inputs as possible when teaching new concepts. Students should touch, see, feel, hear all simultaneously. This increases neural connections and enhances learning and memory. Examples include:
- the use of objects to form numeracy patterns, dice and domino arrangements, the number line to show accumulation of quantities, construction and deconstruction of quantity using Unifix or linking cubes,
- Craft sticks to demonstrate place value - tally marks at 5 and bundled at 10, Base Ten Place Value Blocks on a place value mat,
- Manipulatives to demonstrate multiplication and division concepts and patterns
- Manipulatives to model algebraic concepts such as exponential growth or linear function patterns
Fewer Facts At A Time to Develop Fluency Over Time - Revelations from neuroscience strongly suggest that students with language based learning disabilities experience difficulty learning multiplication facts because they are actually a language retrieval task. Simple subitizing patterns are memorized with aid of visual patterns such as dice and dominoes, but multiplication patterns are not as easily visualized. Because the student with language based deficits must rely on verbal memory a strategy in which we teach fewer facts at a time aids the student in retrieving them. We use a restricted set of number facts, modeling with manipulatives such as "strings with wings" and then use the targeted facts to automaticity. We teach inverse operations - multiplication and division- at the same time so there is a reduced load on memory.